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03/18 DFS Kranich II Two Seater Glider

 The Kranich two seater training glider was the first plane produced in a large- scale production in Germany and it spread out over the world very soon. It competed against the prevalent Schneider Grunau 9, the Schneider SG 38 and other single seater trainers. In the years to come the two seaters prevailed.

The Kranich was designed by the famous Hans Jacobs, whose mentor was Lippisch, a member of the Rhön-Rositten Society. This society flourished in the twenties, but did not suit the upcoming Nazi regime and was liquidated. Out of the ruins of this society Prof. Georgii set up the DFS Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug (German Research Institute for Gliding Flight). Later it took shelter in the Reichsluftfahrt Ministerium (Department of Aviation).

In 1935 the Kranich was placed on the market. Nearly nothing is known of this Type I. The plane was built by Co. Schweyer in Mannheim with an open or a closed plexiglass hood. After the war, when glider flying was allowed in Western Germany in 1951, Jacobs designed the Kranich II. This plane was built by a revived company – Focke-Wulf. As a matter of fact, this was a completely new plane, but it carried on the famous name.

These airplanes were delivered to glider flying schools of the Reich for the pre-military training in the DLV, the Deutscher Luftsport Verband (German Aero Confederation), later renamed NSFK, Nationalsozialisters Fliegerkorps (National Socialist Flying Corps) and the Flieger-HJ (Hitler-Jugend). The Luftwaffe also took some of these planes for training.

With a glide ratio of 23 and a sink rate of 0.7m/s at that time the Kranich was a high performance glider and records were established with this plane. But with a take-off weight of 450 kg it was a heavy bird and ground crews worked up some sweat to get it into the air.

In October 1940 Erich Klöckner, after lengthy airplane towing and by wave soaring, succeded in climbing into the stratosphere to a height of 11,400 m.The FAI recognizedthis record after the war. It was not before 1950 that this record was surpassed in the States.

Nobody knows how many Kranich planes were built, but some suvived the war. A few were

hidden in good time emerged when glider flying was permitted again. During the war this plane was built under license in Sweden and after the war by SZD in Poland and MARZ in the CSSR.

In the fifties the Kranich was surpassed by lighter and more efficient two seaters like Scheibe Bergfalke Iior Schleicher Ka 2 and Ka 7. The two seater training had 

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won, and these famous planes marked the beginning. Even today you can encounter some of these planes in Germany and abroad and they are the center of attraction at vintge meetings.

Technical data

Length 7.75 m; wing-span 18,00 m; wing area 22.70m2; empty mass 175 kg; max. take off weight 450 – 465 kg; v/max 175km/; v/tow and winch 100 km/; glide ratio 23.6; sink rate 0.7 m/s

 

A great color picture with the Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-4 und der Spitfire Mk.XIV

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More information can be found directly in the museum under the picture.

Heinkel He 42 (before 1934: HD 42) (showcase 6)

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In the years 1929/30 Heinkel designed the seaplane HD 24 as a succsesor of the sea biplane HD 42.

Here we must briefly explain the notation system of Heinkel: Heinkel’s monoplanes were labeled HE - meaning Heinkel Eindecker, biplanes were lab

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eled HD - Heinkel Doppldecker. This system changed when the Nazi goverrnment created the new Department of Aviation, which established a new code. All German aircraft companies were assigned letters and Heinkel got the abreviation He; thus HD 42 became He 42.

This airplane was designed especially for the training of sea pilots. The prototype HD 42a took off in 1930. A lot of modifications were necessary due to the fact that the flight quality was much worse than that of its predecessor HD 24. The fuselage had to be streched and the dihedral angle of the wings had to be changed.

The owner of the plane was the DVS. The following types HD 42C and HD 42D had a much better catapult performance. In 1933 another type with a stronger Junkers engine, the HD 42 E was built. This type again was replaced by the Heinkel He 60, a much better and very modern plane. Some of these He 42 planes served in flying schools up to the year 1944.

Technical Data

 

upper wing span 14 m, lower wing span 13 m; length 10.7 m; height 4.3 m; float track 3.2 m; total wing area 56 sqm; dry weight 1790 kg; take-off weight 2285 kg;

engines: BMW Va, 6 cyl. watercooled upright in-line engine with 280 kW/380 HP or Junkers Jumo L5 in identical design

crew 2; max. speed (BMW) 190 km/h; (Jumo) 182 km/h; cruising speed ca. 160 km/h;

range of aircraft 1050 km

 

Macchi MC-72 (showcase 07)

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Even before WW1 there was a competition for the high speed flight of hydroplanes, the Schneider Trophy. (For landplanes there was the Gordon-Bennet- Competition).

After WW1 Germany was excluded from these competitions due to the Versailles Treaty. Hydroplanes became more and more important because the planes got heavier and needed longer runways. On water there were long runways free of charge.

In the course of time the planes got heavier because of the bigger and stronger engines and biplanes became less popular in favour of monoplanes with reduced aerodynamic drag. After the British had won the trophy a couple of times the Italian company Macchi developed the raceplane MC 72. (The C behind the M stands for the designing engineer Mario Castoldi). This plane had numerous technical innovations, e.g. two upright V-type in-line engines produced by FIAT, set in tandem arrangement with counter-rotating propellers. The engines were cooled by a large-scale evaporative cooling. However, the plane still carried struts.    

But the MC 72 could not participate in the Schneider Trophy due to technical problems. It was won by a British Supermarine S-6b.

Macchi now prepared the plane to break the speed world record. This happened on the 10th of April in 1933: Francesco Agello hit 682.08 km/h. Another pilot flew a 100 km round trip with the same speed

Angello raised the mark to 709.209 on October 23rd, 1933. This record remained untouched until 1938 when it was broken by a landplane, a Heinkel He 100.

Technical Data

Wingspan 9.48 m; length 8.23 m; height 3.29 m; empty weight 2500 kg; take-off weight 2007 kg; engine: two FIAT A.S.6 watercooled upright V-type 12 cyl. engines in tandem arrangement, each 1030 kW/1400 HP; power transmission to two counter-rotating metal propellers; max. speed 702 km/h; open cockpit

 

 

 

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The Henschel company was a factory for trucks and railroad engines in Kassel. Anticipating a demand of aircraft for the new Luftwaffe they founded an airplane division in Berlin Schönefeld. The buildings of this factory still exist today on the ex-GDR passenger airport Schönefeld and house offices and aviation engineering  operations.

After building a few small aircraft they constructed a dive-fighter and low-level attack plane in 1933, designed with an open cockpit. The aircraft engine was supposed to be an air-cooled 9-cyl. BMW 132Dc with 648 kW/880 hp.

The idea behind the design of a dive-fighter was to hit the target precisely without much effort, just the opposite of carpet bombing.

On several trips to the USA Ernst Udet, a famous WW I fighter pilot and stunt pilot, had seen Navy dive bombers. He bought two of these planes, Curtiss-Hawk biplanes and brought them to Germany, where he demonstrated this technique in air shows.

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Series production began in 1936 and several planes were put to a test in the Spanish Civil War, flying for the „Legion Condor“. In the fall of 1936 the first Luftwaffe units were supplied with these aircraft. Although this equipment was already dated when the war started it rendered good service, especially at the eastern front. Not a single plane survived.

Technical data:

upper wing span 10.50 m; lower wing span 8,00 m; length 8.33 m; height 3.20 m;

wing area 24.85 m; weight empty 1500 kg; take off weight 2215 kg;

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Maximum speed 340 km / h, speed of march 315 km / h in 2000 m, service peak 9000 m, range 855 km; engine: 1 x BMW 132